AiF.ru spoke with forensic expert, polygraph examiner Dmitry Zinoviev and found out what kind of people turn to the help of a lie detector, and whether it is possible to deceive him.
Nadezhda Uvarova, AIF: Dmitry, who are they & mdash; your clients? & nbsp;
Dmitry Zinoviev: & nbsp; For research using a polygraph, investigating authorities and courts apply to & ndash; those whose competence is to establish truth and justice. And also employers who need to either select and screen candidates for the position, or conduct an internal investigation of significant events: theft, malpractice, disclosure of confidential information. Basically & nbsp; checks for the presence of various kinds of addictions, involvement in some types of crimes. Ordinary people also come when they select personnel to work in the house, on suspicion of adultery. Or if a child over 14 years of age is suspected of having addictions. Also, a polygraph may be required when entering military service.
It is important to say here that voluntary consent to verification is mandatory. Without this consent, the polygraph procedure will not be carried out. Also, you cannot carry out the procedure in relation to children under & nbsp; 14 years old, people with mental illness or disorders, with cardiovascular or respiratory diseases in the acute stage, as well as pregnant women.
For each call & mdash; & nbsp; history, which is to be clarified using the results of the polygraph examiner's work. Somewhere big money and the company's success are at stake, somewhere personal safety and comfort. But & nbsp; in general & nbsp; at the center is always human life.
& mdash; & nbsp; Does the detector have one hundred percent correct result?
& mdash; & nbsp; Science claims : The accuracy of the result ranges from 85% to 95%. Obviously, the results of a polygraph are more accurate than checking a job seeker or household helper using his natal chart or horoscope of the zodiac sign.
& mdash; & nbsp; How is the testing process going? Like on TV, fast and easy?
& mdash; & nbsp; Each research begins with a stage called the pre-test conversation. We establish contact, adapt the subject to the environment, clarify the person's condition and explain the testing procedure and rules. If a person agrees to be tested, then we talk about biography, health, hobbies, recall the topic of the research (what questions will be asked about). This conversation helps to relieve tension, relieve feelings of fear. After that, the polygraph examiner discusses the topics of the questions with the expert so that they are understandable and do not cause unexpected reactions: anger, surprise, misunderstanding. Then the specialist explains the procedure itself: during the polygraph test, all questions are asked only after a preliminary discussion; tests are voiced several times (from 3 to 5), the questions will be the same, but in a different order. Usually, during testing, several tests are presented, consisting of 5-15 questions, and all of them are discussed in advance with the subject. Then, instructions are given on the procedure for conducting polygraph testing, the polygraph examiner installs the sensors on the body and presents an introductory test, the questions of which were previously discussed. They must be answered clearly: yes or no. After each test, a break is taken for 1 to 2 minutes. During the test, the subject should get comfortable, sit quietly. A break is announced to satisfy natural needs so as not to overwork the person and not distort his reactions for the polygraph.
The entire testing procedure takes place using audio and video recording. This is necessary to record the study and its results. & Nbsp;
& mdash; How long does the testing process take?
& mdash; The optimal duration of the procedure is from 2 to 4 hours, on average about 2.5 hours.
If the research concerns a large volume of tasks, then it is carried out in stages on different days. The ideal conditions for polygraph testing are considered to be the morning after quality sleep and a light breakfast of the subject.
& mdash; & nbsp; How much does the service cost for the customer?
& mdash; & nbsp ; The cost of the study varies depending on the tasks: their number, volume, as well as the status of the polygraph examiner & mdash; & nbsp; expert or specialist. On average, research costs about 30,000 rubles.
& mdash; & nbsp; Which tests are the most difficult for you?
& mdash; & nbsp; The worst category of cases & mdash; & nbsp; cases of child abuse. But fear is replaced by a desire to help the investigating authorities and the court to sort out this case and find the truth. It is also difficult to seek the truth when people, after a while, change their testimony to the opposite. And here polygraph testing comes to the rescue, which can be combined with psychological and linguistic research. After one of these studies, my colleagues and I saw an expert on one of the TV shows, where he tried to prove that he had slandered an acquaintance who had been convicted of a crime. Although the research carried out indicated the involvement of the convicted person in the crime.
& mdash; & nbsp; Were there any funny stories?
& mdash; & nbsp; From a curious, I recall the following case: a woman asked for a polygraph test, whose husband found a video on a famous porn site allegedly with her participation in the interior of their apartment. In the video, the woman's face was not visible, only her body with her partner. But the curbstone in the corner and the color of the walls of the room in which the action took place became a reinforced concrete argument for the husband of the customer. The woman could not independently convince her husband of her innocence, and our experts in video technical expertise could not convince him either. Therefore, she applied for a polygraph test and was able to prove to her husband that the porn actress was not her. We do not know how their family life developed, but they left us holding hands.
Quite often, polygraph examiners are asked to investigate thefts. And sometimes it is enough for the security service of an organization to get our consent to research in order to uncover a whole chain of thefts: people themselves tell the truth, knowing that it will be revealed anyway. In this way, we have helped several businesses preserve their money and reputation.
I remember a case related to the investigation of the disappearance of a pet. The family was very worried that their dear dog was gone. Therefore, all family members were ready to undergo a polygraph. As a result, it turned out that the grandmother of the family knew about the disappearance of the pet. Subsequently, the customers said that they found the dog in one of the dog shelters.
& mdash; & nbsp; Are the subjects deceiving?
& mdash; & nbsp; I am always impressed by the dissonance of appearance and personality. For example, a person is being interviewed for an important position in a large company. Looks pretty decent, well-groomed. And during the study it turns out that he has long been addicted to alcohol or drugs. With this addiction, the interview does not end in his favor. It's always sad that addictions are destroying someone's dream.
There was one story that our company calls the Button Puncture. A large corporation was looking for a top manager. During the interview, the polygraph examiner had to ask questions from the HR department. But, as expected, control questions are asked first, to which the answer is known, in order to calibrate the equipment and set control points. At this moment, the polygraph recorded absolutely inadequate reactions. At first I thought it was a hardware problem, but some of the answers were fixing as they should & nbsp; under standard procedure. Then I asked the question head-on, is the candidate trying to deceive us by using an object that causes pain? And he explained: if he decided to use a movie trick such as a button in a boot under the heel, then without practice it will not work. To deceive, you need control of pain, pulse, knowledge of how to apply pressure, so that the polygraph would consider it a normal reaction, and most importantly – & mdash; repeated workouts, where every mistake is recorded, and then the person tries again and again. As a result, & nbsp; the subject gave a really honest answer: “ Yes, this is a button, sorry, in the movies it seemed easier than it really is. '' He did not receive the position. Although, as the employee of the company who was present at the interview later admitted, this candidate was one of the best. And if not for an attempt at deception, he had every chance. Since then, the “ Puncture on the button '' makes you smile.
& mdash; & nbsp; Dmitry, how widespread is the use of a polygraph in our country?
& mdash; & nbsp; The use of a polygraph is most common in operational-search work, during which the main circumstances of crimes are established. Courts also often turn to such studies in case of conflicting evidence or suspicions of a slander, the compulsion of this testimony. I think that the practice of using polygraph research will expand along with the growth of confidence in such examinations.
& mdash; & nbsp; Do courts accept the assessment of a polygraph examination as evidence?
& mdash; & nbsp; Courts certainly accept the opinions of polygraph examiners as admissible evidence.
However, you need to understand that in the course of the trial, the body of evidence is assessed. That is, it is extremely rare that everything happens like in a movie: a court participant came, slammed on the table with the conclusion of a polygraph examiner, and that's it, the course of the case turned upside down.
& mdash; & nbsp; So is it possible to deceive lie detector?
& mdash; & nbsp; The device itself cannot be deceived, but it is quite possible to try to deceive a specialist. It should be understood that psychophysiological studies using a polygraph have been carried out for a long time, therefore all methods of counteraction (this is how they are methodically called) are described in the methodological literature. The effectiveness of methods to deceive a polygraph depends on many factors: on the technique used by the polygraph examiner, the personal qualities of the subject, the qualifications of the specialist.
There are mental (self-hypnosis, thought transfer), physical (muscle contraction, changes in breathing), physiological (lack of sleep, physical activity before the study), pharmacological ways of counteracting the PFI procedure (psychophysiological studies). All these methods are ineffective against most proven research methods and are always detected by experienced polygraph examiners. Therefore, I believe that it is almost impossible to deceive a qualified polygraph examiner and distort the results of a polygraph test.
& mdash; & nbsp; Where do they study to be a polygraph examiner?
& mdash; & nbsp; Basically & nbsp; become polygraph examiners after professional retraining. This specialized knowledge can be acquired in a variety of institutions, from departmental to private. After completing the training, the future polygraph examiner can receive a specialty bearing different names, but of the same content & mdash; a specialist in the field of application of methods of applied psychophysiology in order to assess the reliability of information provided by a person. And the expert specialty necessary for the production of forensic examinations is called “ Psychophysiological research in relation to a person using a polygraph. '' Also, a polygraph examiner can be awarded the qualification “ Forensic expert for conducting psychophysiological research using a polygraph. ''